GSEB Solutions

GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2

First World War and Russian Revolution

Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 First World War and Russian Revolution Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.

First World War and Russian Revolution Class 9 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 2

 

GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 First World War and Russian Revolution
GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 First World War and Russian Revolution

Gujarat Board Class 9 Social Science First World War and Russian Revolution Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Answer the following Questions pointwise:

Question 1.
Discuss the process of establishment of colonies in West Europe, Asia and Africa.
Answer:
Establishment of Colonies in West Europe:

  1. The western European countries wanted to expand their empire in Asia-Africa.
  2. They did not spare even their neighbouring countries.
  3. Spain had taken control over Netherland, Belgium and Luxemburg.
  4. Portugal came under the rule of the Spanish king because of his blood relation.
  5. Italy and German states became the victim of the greed of the France and Austria.
  6. When European powers were tightening their grip over the Asian and African nations, many of the European nations which had become free, following the footsteps of England, made many of the Afro-Asian nation their Colonies.

Go through these Social Science Chapter 2 First World War and Russian Revolution GSEB Class 9 Notes to score well in your exam.

Colonialism in Asia:

  1. After strengthening its grip over India, England (British) expanded its empire to Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Singapore and Malaysia.
  2. England entered China also and imposing trade of opium upon China. This led opium wars.
  3. China lost war and thereby lost five of its ports to England where England carried on its trade and thus expanded their empire.
  4. Due to weakness of China, Japan, Russia, Germany, France, Belgium and America also acquired trade and political rights.
  5. Due to enormous oil resources of West Asia Europeans established colonies there.
  6. England, Germany, Russia and America established oil companies in Iran, Iraq , Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.

Colonies in Africa:

  1. The Dutch established its colony for the first time at the end of 15th Century in South Africa.
  2. England and France established their colonies in Cape and Algeria in North Africa.
  3. King Leopold of Belgium seized the vast provinces of Congo and established his rule.
  4. England established its colonies in Egypt, some provinces of East Africa and some of South Africa.
  5. France established its colonies in Tunisia, Morocco and West Africa provinces.
  6. Germany established its empire in some provinces of East and West Africa.
  7. Italy captured the African provinces around the Red sea.
  8. After the end of Berlin Conference, the African territories were divided among the European nations.

 

Question 2.
Explain the factors responsible for the First World War.
Answer:
Following factors were responsible for the First World War:
Frankfurt Treaty: It was a peace treaty signed in Frankfurt on 10 May 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian war In this war, Germany (Poussia) had defeated France and compelled France to sign the Frankfurt Treaty.

  • According to which France had to pay a war fine as well as give away two of its provinces Lorraine and Alsace to Germany.
  • France had not been able to overcome this humiliation.
  • Thus, Frankfurt Treaty itself was the cause of the First World War.

Economic Factors:
England had established its vast empire in Asia and Africa in the 19th century by exploiting its colonies economically.

  1. Due to industrialization and colonisation, Europe required huge Quantity or raw material.
  2. In the last Quarter of 19th century, Germany had started the competition to produce the markets in Asia and Africa.
  3. It started supplying cheaper goods in comparison to England and France.
  4. It broke up the market of England and France.
  5. Thus, there was an intense economic competition between Germany and England.

Militarism: Military force was necessary and important for the competition that the European nations got into for expansion.

  1. England, France, Austria, Russia, etc., had begun expending their military power.
  2. Countries like Japan, Italy and Germany, compulsory military training had started.
  3. Production of weapons was increased under the pretext of self-defence.
  4. Thus, militarism got an impetus and military competition added to economic competition created a serious atmosphere of war.

Groupism-Secret Treaties:
Groupism and Secret treaties played a major role in the First World War.

  • The world was divided into two groups before the First World War.
  • On one side was the group of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey while on the other side was the group of England, France, Russia and Japan.
  • A feeling of jealousy, enmity, mistrust, fear and hatred evolved between the groups which was an important factor of the First World War.

Feeling of Fierce Nationalism:
The independence of Belgium and Greece and the unification of Germany and Italy were the result of nationalism.

  1. The feeling of nationalism took an extreme and narrow from in Europe.
  2. Economic jealousies, competitions and colonialism in Europe had increased so much that the national interest of each other began to clash.
  3. Leading European nations began teaching extreme and destructive nationalism to its people.
  4. Love for own nation and hatred or the other nations was encouraged.
  5. The German Chief Kaiser Wilhelm wanted to get things done according to his will with the help of his grand military power.
  6. The feeling of war spread across other nations.

Role of Newspapers: The newspapers of the European nations around so much of hatred among people with their mutual, derogatory, provocative, exaggerated and false write-ups by spitting venom against rival nations that the rulers of the respective nations could not even make efforts for establishing peace and harmony.

  1. Philosophy about war: The policy of “War is Warfare” took root in Europe.
  2. Trotsky published maxims like “only one mighty deserve to live” and “War alone is the national need”.
  3. Nietzsche, the German writer expressed war as “a sacred work”.

Immediate cause:
The Prince of Austria and his wife were assassinated by being shot at by a member of the Serbian terrorist organization “Black Hand”, Austria blamed Serbia for the involvement in the act and gave an ultimatum to hand over the culprit to Austria within 48 hours.

  • Serbia declared its ignorance in the matter.
  • Thus, Austria declared war on Serbia and the First World War had begun on 1st August 1914.

Question 3.
Mention the effects of the First World War.
Answer:
Effects of the First World War:

  1. During the War the production of things of basic necessity had reduced.
  2. Thus, problems like scarcity, unemployment, starvation, strike lockout, etc. raised.
  3. People suffered a lot and children condition was pathetic.
  4. At the end of the First World War, Germany unconditionally surrenders in front of the Allied Nations, and as a result the Treaty of Versailles (June 1919) took place.
  5. Thus, the war ended.
  6. In Paris “Peace Process” started between Allied Nations.
  7. 58 commissions and 145 Sessions were organised.
  8. The Agreement was made with Germany in Mirror palace of Versailles. Thus, it is called Treaty of Versailles.

Following provisions were made in the Treaty of Versailles:

  1. Regional arrangement.
  2. Reduction in troops and disarmament.
  3. The arrangement of distribution of gains at the end of the war and war fine.
  4. Germany was found responsible for the war.
  5. A war fine of 6.5 billion pound was imposed on Germany.
  6. It had to give away the Ruhr region to France.
  7. Its Rhine river had to be opened for international sea route.
  8. The Rhineland region on French border was disallowed from being a fortress.
  9. Mineral-rich regions was given away to France for 15 years.
  10. Most of the German organisations were confiscated.
  11. Alsace and Lorraine were to be returned to France.
  12. Germany was to gibe to France and other Allied Nations, a large Quantity of coal and iron, annually, as the benefits of war.
  13. Germany was made to sign these terms and conditions on gunpoint and forcibly because of which there was bitterness and desperation amongst Germans.

Long Terms Effects:

  1. Treaty of Versailles could not create the feeling of peace. Due to it, the feeling of revenge was generated among the defeated nations.
  2. Socialist Russia was not given a place in the League of Nations.
  3. America did not join the League of Nations.
  4. Thus, these Peace Process itself became responsible for Second World War.

 

Question 4.
Write short notes on the following:
Answer:
1. Russian Revolution:

  1. The Russian Revolution is considered as an important event in world history.
  2. The Russian had been oppressed and suppressed by the Czar of Russia.
  3. The Russian Czar were inherited the position and were dictators.
  4. People did not have any rights during this period..
  5. The Czar were so cruel and pitiless on people that if anyone demanded for any rights, he was tortured, suppressed and severely punished by sending them to the bone-chilling and dead cold of Siberia.
  6. These became the reason for grief, poverty and suffering among people.
  7. Farmers, labourers and peasants were not getting enough income, despite working very hard. They became poor.
  8. Under the leadership of Father Gapon, a large rally was taken out to the Czer’s residence, Winter Palace on 22 January, 1905.
  9. The Czar’s army opened fire on these innocent people, because of which thousands of innocent people died and the snow in Petersburg, turned red with blood.
  10. This day is called “Bloody Sunday” in history.
  11. A large number of Russians got provoked and became restless as the weaknesses of the Czardom had become obvious when a small nation like Japan had defeated a massive nation like Russia in the Russia- Japan War.
  12. In order to pacify the angry Russians, an announcement to call for a Duma Legislative Assembly, which had not been called for years, was made.
  13. For such Duma were called but could not satisfy the citizens.
  14. On 8th March, 1917, the oppressed workers of Petrograd called for a strike.
  15. The Czar sent his troops to contain this event. But army refused to shoot these people.
  16. As a result Bolshevik revolution was started.

2. The Events of the First World War:

  1. The First World War had begun on 28th July, 1914.
  2. In these 24 nations supported the Allied Nations and 4 nations supported the Axis Nations.
  3. Many soldiers and civilians died because many soldiers and civilians died because of tanks and poisonous gases.
  4. In 1917, The Russian Revolution started to Russia withdrew from the war.
  5. Germany managed to drown an American steamer ‘Lusitania’ in which 147 American soldiers died.
  6. Thus, America joined the Allied Nations. Thus, they became strong.
  7. German army could not withstand the American troops.
  8. Bulgaria in September 1918, Turkey and Austria in October 1918 joined the Allied Nations.
  9. The Germany leader Kaiser Wilhelm surrendered his position and ran away.
  10. Germany surrendered to Allied Nations and signed a cease-fire treaty and the war ended.

3. Aims of the League of Nations:

  1. The League of Nations was formed on 10 January, 1920.
  2. To maintain international peace and security.
  3. Every nation to respect the unity and integrity of other nations.
  4. To give up the policy of war.
  5. To develop international relations.
  6. To solve international disputes peacefully, through negotiation or mediation.
  7. If any nation ignores the League of Nations or its mediations it would be declared as a ‘rebel’ nation.

Question 5.
Give Reasons:

Question 1.
The League of Nations was established after the First World War.
Answer:
The horrors of the World War explained the absolute necessity of world peace to the nations of the world. A need for an international organization was felt. So, it became necessary to think actively and immediately about world peace and thus the American President Woodrow Wilson had contributed substantially in the establishment of League of Nations.

Question 2.
22nd January, 1905 is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’ for Russia:
Answer:
Russia was ruled by Czar who were very cruel and pitiless. They were dictators and did atrocities on people. People did not have any rights during this period. So to demand for their rights, people decided to peacefully take out a large rally against the Czar under the leadership of Father Gapon. The rally reached Winter Palace which was Czar’s residence on 22nd January, 1905. The day was Sunday. The Czar’s army opened fire on these innocent people, because of which thousands of innocent people died and the snow in Petersburg, turned red with blood. Thus, this day is known as “Bloody Sunday”.

Question 6.
Choose the correct option from those given below:

Question 1.
In which Treaty was the seed for the First World War sown?
A. Versailles
B. Treaty of France and Britain
C. Frankfurt
D. Treaty of Germany and Hungary
Answer:
A. Versailles

 

Question 2.
Which Treaty was signed at the end of the First World War?
A. Treaty of Versailles
B. Latem Treaty
C. Secret Treaty
D. Frankfurt Treaty
Answer:
A. Treaty of Versailles

Question 3.
Which provinces did France lose with the Frankfurt Treaty?
A. Denzing provinces
B. Provinces in west Russia
C. Abscess and Lorraine provinces
D. Provinces in England
Answer:
C. Abscess and Lorraine provinces

Gujarat Board Class 9 Social Science First World War and Russian Revolution Additional Important Questions and Answers

Answer the Following Questions:

Question 1.
How the Treaty of Frankfurt was the root-cause of the First World War?
Answer:

  1. Germany had defeated France in the Sedan War because of which France had to sign the Frankfurt Treaty in 1871.
  2. According to which France had to pay a war fine as well as give away to of its provinces Lorraine and Alsace to Germany.
  3. France had not been able to overcome this humiliation.
  4. Thus, the Frankfurt Treaty itself was the cause of the First World War.

Question 2.
There was an instance economic competition between England and Germany.
Answer:

  1. England has established its vast empire in Asia and Africa in the 19th Century by exploiting its colonies economically.
  2. Due to industrialization and colonisation, Europe required a huge quantity of raw material.
  3. In the last Quarter of the 19th century, Germany had started the competition to produce the markets in Asia and Africa.
  4. It started supplying cheaper good in comparison to England and France.
  5. It broke up the market of England and France.
  6. Thus, there was an intense economic competition between Germany and England.

 

Question 3.
Why had the self-confidence of women in Europe enhanced after the First World War?
Answer:

  1. During the War women shouldered the responsibility of the family and occupation as men were on the war front.
  2. They stepped out of their homes and successfully tool over the responsibility in different professional fields.
  3. The self-confidence of their being equivalent to men, enhanced.
  4. Thus, the demand for women to exercise their franchise was raised.

Question 4.
The seeds for the Second World War were sown in the Peace Process of the First World War itself. Given reason.
Answer:

  1. At the end of the First World War, Germany unconditionally surrenders in front of the Allied Nations.
  2. In Paris “Peace process” started between Allied Nations.
  3. The agreement was made with Germany in Mirror place of Versailles. Thus, it is called Treaty of Versailles.
  4. Germany was found responsible for the war.
  5. A war fine of 6.5 billion pound was imposed on Germany.
  6. It had to give away the Ruhr region to France.
  7. Its Rhine river had to be opened for international see route.
  8. The Rhineland region on French border was disallowed from being a fortress.
  9. Mineral-rich regions were given away to France for 15 years.
  10. Most of the German organisations were confiscated.
  11. Due to all these reasons, Germans developed a strong feeling of revenge which later turned out to be the beginning of the Second World War.

Question 5.
Which Europeans established their colonies in which different parts of Africa?
Answer:

  1. The Dutch established its colony for the first time at the end of 15th Century in South Africa.
  2. England and France established their colonies in Cape and Algeria in North Africa.
  3. King Leopold of Belgium seized the vast provinces of Congo and established his rule.
  4. England established its colonies in Egypt, some province of East Africa and some of South Africa.
  5. France established its colonies in Tunisia, Morocco and West Africa provinces.
  6. Germany established its empire in some provinces of East and West Africa.
  7. Italy captured the African provinces around the Red sea.
  8. Spain and Portugal also seized some provinces of Africa. After the end of Berlin Conference, the African territories were divided among the European nations.

Question 6.
How was treaty of Versailles unjust?
Answer:
Germany was found responsible for the war:

  1. A war fine of 6.5 billion pound was imposed on Germany.
  2. It had to give away the Ruhr region to France.
  3. Its Rhine river had to be opened for international sea route.
  4. The Rhineland region on French border was disallowed from being a fortress.
  5. Mineral-rich regions was given away to France for 15 years.
  6. Most of the German organisations were confiscated.
  7. Alsace and Lorraine were to be returned to France.
  8. Germany was to gibe to France and other Allied Nations, a large Quantity of coal and iron, annually, as the benefits of war.
  9. Germany was made to sign these terms and conditions on gunpoint and forcibly because of which there was bitterness and desperation amongst Germans.
  10. Thus, Treaty of Versailles was unjust.

Question 7.
The overambitious nature of Kaiser Wilhelm II can be held responsible for the First World War”. Justify the statement.
Answer:

  1. Wilhelm II was an extremely ambitious German Kaiser.
  2. He believed in ‘World Leadership’
  3. He was also the originator of nationalism and colonialism.
  4. To convert his over-ambition and bring the world under his own rule, he raised a very large army.
  5. His policies led to the feeling of war in Germany and later in entire Europe.
  6. Thus, we can say that Kaiser Wilhelm was overambitious by nature.

 

Question 8.
Describe Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 in brief.
Answer:
Bolshevik Revolution:

  1. The Russians toppled the kingdom of the Tsar (Czar).
  2. The power fell into the hands of Aleksander F. Kerensky who was the leader of Menshevik, the Minority group.
  3. The entire Russia was happy with the fall of Czar, except Lenin.
  4. Lenin believed that labourers should get their right and importance as propagated by Karl Marx, whereas the Menshevik group believed giving importance to the middle class.
  5. As a result, Lenin provoked the Bolsheviks against Mensheviks and declared another revolution in November 1917.
  6. This revolution was the final revolution and Lenin got he reins in his hands.
  7. This is known as Socialist Bolshevik Revolution.
  8. Thus, the 300 years old Tsardom came to an end and for the first time and Russia was without Czar.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button